• Our Web Based Training course include topics in Material Management, Financial Accounting, Quality Assurance, Marketing, Production Planning and more...
  • Our courses are supported by online tutors available to answer your questions and discuss the topics you are reviewing.
  • Topic in Quality Assurance is now available. Others topics will be coming soon !!!
  • This site is shaping up under valuable guidance of following respected professionals with extensive experience in various industries
  • Mr. Jayant Joshi (MD - Ajay Techma Systems Pvt. Ltd.)

Offering RESPA - An ERP solution with 22 years of industry experience and also a trainer on business aspects and systems related to these areas.

This site is ideal for those who are :

  • Professionals in Quality Management
  • Functional Consultants
  • Quality System Implementors
  • ERP Implementors
Many professionals from Industry have appreciated this Web Based Training as this will expedite team training & will help in implementation of enterprise solution. The training in process of decision-making will benefit company in improving business performance & thus customer satisfaction.
The Internet is one of the most important tools in the teacher's toolbox, with the World Wide Web, or simply, the Web, as the easiest and most popular way to access it. The possibilities of Web-based instruction are endless.
Already, Web-based training material and courses of all kinds are available, ranging from little more than a syllabus to sophisticated courses offered by scientific and educational experts. Some courses are free while others have a fee imposed. No doubt, educational institutions will soon employ counselors, to be available online, to interview students and recommend particular Web-based courses. The Web is delivery medium, content provider, and subject matter all in one and it fills a need at the upper end of the educational spectrum, but it also represents a major challenge to the core educational mission of schools.
These pages are designed to help instructors in using the Web in education, create material for it, and keep track of it. As you read, keep in mind that no one is saying that "you must do this" or "you must do that". Play with the material and add your own ideas. The Web thrives on experimentation, which is evident in the constant introduction of new tools designed to spark creativity. We are able to construct applications and materials in many new ways. Some of the emerging tools will provide incredible opportunities to expand knowledge and may even change the way people read, think, and learn.
Web-based training (WBT) is an innovative approach to distance learning in which computer-based training (CBT) is transformed by the technologies and methodologies of the World Wide Web, the Internet, and intranets. Web-based training presents live content, as fresh as the moment and modified at will, in a structure allowing self-directed, self-paced instruction in any topic.
WBT is media-rich training fully capable of evaluation, adaptation, and remediation, all independent of computer platform.
Web-based training is an ideal vehicle for delivering training to individuals anywhere in the world at any time. Advances in computer network technology and improvements in bandwidth will usher in capabilities for unlimited multimedia access. Web browsers that support 3-D virtual reality, animation, interactions, chat and conferencing, and real-time audio and video will offer unparalleled training opportunities. With the tools at hand today, we can craft highly effective WBT to meet the training needs of a diverse population. Web-based performance support systems (WBPSS) further help today's busy workers perform their jobs by integrating WBT, information systems, and job aids into unified systems available on demand.
The current focus of WBT development is on learning how to use the available tools and organize content into well-crafted teaching systems. Training designers are still struggling with issues of user interface design and programming for high levels of interaction. Unfortunately, there are few examples of good WBT design visible on the public Internet. As instructional designers and training analysts learn how to write and produce WBT, and as training vendors come to realize the overwhelming advantages of this delivery method, expect an explosion in training offerings available over the public Internet and private intranets.
Take a look at a Web site from a college or university and you'll see that there is much more to Web-based training than just an online course. You'll see such things as catalogs, schedules, and forms. With these, you can begin to see how some of the Web's advantages can come into play.
Consider an online course catalog. Students on campus, remote students, as well as prospective students can view the catalog's contents. Printing and postage costs are reduced and the information is readily available. With the online forms, students can register for a course or order books. Time from travel is saved, less time spent on the phone as a result of fewer calls, and hardcopy forms are reduced, Administration becomes more efficient with the benefits gained.

What else can we use the Web for? Glad you asked. Consider some of these :

  • catalogs
  • class schedules
  • reading lists
  • videos and sound clips
  • courseware and curriculum materials
  • lesson plans
  • training manuals
  • registration and order forms
  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
  • questionnaires
  • instructor and student lists

There are many more possibilities. We'll cover a few of these here to give you an idea or three as to how some of these can be used.

Catalogs

In order to reflect changes in printed catalogs a new batch must be printed. For example, instructor changes may occur and courses canceled. Online catalogs can contain such last-minute changes and at the same time reducing the costs required to print new copies. Catalogs normally contain the course name, course number, the instructor, times, etc. They can also contain graphics and links. Links can be made to related information, instructor home pages, and texts.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

This is one tools that will benefit students, instructors, and the administrative staff. A FAQ is a list of commonly asked questions and their answers. Posting FAQs provide ready answers to the student. FAQs also reduce the amount of time spent in answering questions; students and staff can concentrate on getting down to business.

Some of the items you may want to post are:

  • procedures for registering for a class
  • procedures for dropping a class and penalties that may be incurred
  • any fees that may be required
  • dates to be aware of
    • last date to register
    • cutoff dates for adding, dropping or changing a course
    • dates that fees are due
    • class start and stop dates
  • information as to whether registration to a class, outside of the student's discipline is allowed
  • financial aid policies
  • library services
  • office hours of administration and instructors

As you can with the catalog, links can be provided to catalogs, regulations, and forms.

Lesson Plans, Courseware, and Curriculum Materials

Keeping courseware, lesson plans, and other curriculum materials online encourages collaboration and simplifies the design and revision of materials. Also, for courses taught at several sites, corrections and additions to material on the server ensures that up-to-date information is always available to all sites. Printing and shipping costs are reduced and time-lag is eliminated. Also, consistency is achieved.

Here's a small list of what can be made available :

  • create libraries of video and sound clips for use in courses
  • provide links to: incurred
  • subject-related sites
    • research sites
    • newsgroups
    • libraries
    • newsgroups
    • libraries
    • databases
    • lesson plan repositories
  • in-house written plans and texts
  • Product manuals

Forms

Less expensive than printing hardcopy forms, and certainly more efficient than paper shuffling, online forms are a great way to increase productivity.

Some of the forms to consider using are:

  • course registration and withdrawal forms
  • questionnaires
  • bookstore ordering forms
  • library checkout forms
  • course review forms

Using online forms eliminates a trip to administration and time on the phone. Also, costs in printing several types of forms are reduced.

Online questionnaires encourage feedback from students and faculty alike. You can ask for feedback on nearly any subject.

USENet News

USENet News discussions as well as other Internet educational resources, that pertain to your subject, can be downloaded and used in a course. Students, as well as staff, while reducing cruising time, will keep up with current trends in their field of interest.

Videos and Sound clips

Presentations and courseware can come alive with the addition of videos and sound clips, enhancing the learning experience.

Presentations

Well suited for corporate training environments and schools alike, presentations can be easily created, updated, and shared with a considerable savings in time and effort. A presentation can be put to great use as a supplement in lectures and the same material can be used in summary or sales meetings.

This should give you some idea as to how you can make the Web work for you. There is much more than what's listed here; you're limited only by your imagination.

I've heard all these terms: WBT, IBT, WBI, IBI, WBL. What is the difference?

Web-based training (WBT) is training delivered using TCP/IP and HTTP protocols, the protocols that define the World Wide Web. Internet-based training (IBT) is training delivered using TCP/IP protocol, but not necessarily HTTP; thus IBT might use proprietary protocols and applications. Training, in this sense, means instruction to improve skills, change attitudes, or enhance knowledge, principally in the workplace. Web-based learning (WBL), Web-based instruction (WBI) and Internet-based instruction (IBI) use the same respective technologies; however, these terms most often are used to reference academic instruction.

Is WBT distance learning?

Yes, WBT is one method of distance learning. However, distance learning encompasses many other methodologies, including one-way and two-way audio/video teleconferencing, video broadcast, and even correspondence courses. Distance learning may be delivered in real time, or it may be delayed (asynchronous).

Are chat, discussion groups, and e-mail useful for WBT?

Yes. When appropriately used, each of these can enhance learning and improve performance. I use the term chat as a synonym for any online, real-time group activity, from text chat to 3-D worlds with participant avatars. Discussion groups (forums, Usenet newsgroups) are similar to text chat, only asynchronous--when one poses a question to the group, or answers another, all members of the group benefit, though not instantaneously. It's the group dynamic of these information sharing media that adds perspective perhaps not available in one-on-one instruction. When e-mail lists are used in sending group messages, the learning effect is the same.

Which software should I use to develop and implement WBT?

The only right answer is to use the tools that meet your specific needs. The critical first step is to conduct a technical analysis. You also need to assess your skills at using development tools. And, of course, assess your budget, for some development software is quite expensive.

How much does WBT cost?

Depends. Well, it does depend on the kind of Web infrastructure in place, the availability of content, the complexity of programming required, the length of training, and who will be doing the work.

Where can I see examples of good WBT? All I have seen so far is disappointing?

There are many skeptics that say WBT cannot fill the bill for quality training. I disagree. Effective instruction, with measurable outcomes, can be achieved without the fanfare of CD-ROM-like multimedia. Audio, video, and liberal use of graphics can enhance instructional design, but these are not absolute necessities. Am I suggesting "designing down?" No, not at all. Where the infrastructure exists, the doors are open for using audio, video, VRML, and the like. Intranets are fertile ground for the kind of WBT applications skeptics are hoping to see. Even so, I have seen great WBT that runs quite successfully at 28.8 Kbps speeds. This site attempts to collect--with your help!--some of the best that is visible on public nets. Not all examples succeed in every measure, but each has something to contribute to the growth of this medium. Believe me when I say there are lots more on private nets, regretably not available for you to see. My suggestion: if you do not see what you consider as good WBT, build it yourself ... and then give me the link so everyone else can see your masterpiece.

What services does the Web-Based Training Information Center offer?

None. The WBTIC is a private, information-only site. Any organization or company does not sponsor it. You can read more about this site here.

Why are the discussion forums private?

The discussion forums are intended for a small, select audience: those specifically involved in WBT design, development, and implementation. The freewheeling Usenet newsgroups inadvertently discourage use by serious practitioners. The WBTIC Discussion Forums will certainly be less active, but the "signal to noise" ratio (useful information to idle chatter) should be much higher.

A

Acceptance criteria

Means the product specifications and acceptance / rejection criteria, such as acceptable quality level and nacceptable quality level, with an associated sampling plan, that are necessary for making a decision to accept or reject a lot or batch (or any other convenient sub groups of manufactured units).

Actual yield

Means the quantity that is actually produced at any appropriate phase of manufacture, processing, or packing of a particular drug product.

Aerosol

Pressurised spray e.g. for topical pain-reliever. Uncommon as a dosage form.

Ampoule

All-in-one closed glass container containing liquid sealed by heat (electrical or direct flame). Opened by reaking neck.

Antibiotics

Products such as cephalosporins, generally produced by fermentation. Production is segregated from other pharmaceutical production.

B

Batch

A specific quantity of a drug or other material that is intended to have uniform character and quality, within specified limits, and is produced according to a single manufacturing order during the same cycle of manufacture.

Bio-safety

Safety during the handling of biological materials such as genetically-manipulated micro-organisms. Encompasses records and procedures.

BOM

Bill of Materials.

Bulk stock

Stock of unpacked or unlabelled drug products. Generally a buffer stock between manufacturing and packing.

C

Campaign

A series of production orders or jobs run end-to-end, usually of the same or very similar products. Designed to minimise the effect of changeovers but reduces flexibility.

Capsule

Soluble gelatine container for direct ingestion.

Component

Any ingredient intended for use in the manufacture of a drug product, including those.

COA

Certificate of Analysis.

COC

Certificate of Conformity

Clinical Trial Certificate

A document giving information on the presentation of a drug, its recommended dosage, precautions associated with its use and the list of indications for which the drug is licenced.

D

Derivative

A compound with modified properties derived from a basic chemical structure.

Diagnostic reagents

Products used for in vitro analysis of patient material e.g. blood. They have many control and manufacturing characteristics in common with pharmaceuticals, but are usually produced in small quantities and often rely upon natural ingredients.

Dispensing

The process of weighing out or measuring out the quantities of component materials for a production order or job. Carried out in protected environments. May be treated as part of the stores/warehouse operation or, less commonly, as part of production. Specialist systems often found here.

Document Management

Manual Document Management is rapidly being superceded by computer based Document Management Systems, also known as DMS.

Dosage form

The physical form of a drug product e.g. tablet, ointment. Basic division of production operations.

Drug product

A finished dosage form, for example, tablet, capsule, solution , etc., that contains an active drug ingredient generally, but not necessarily, in association with in active ingredients. The term also includes a finished dosage form that does not contain an active ingredient but is intended to be used a placebo.

E

Ethical pharmaceuticals ("Ethicals")

Prescription-only drug products. Often under patent.

Excipient

Material, such as magnesium stearate or calcium carbonate, used to bulk out the active ingredient in tablets. May also provide other properties e.g effervescence upon solution. Excipients are "inactive ingredients".

F

Formulation

The recipe or product structure for a specific dosage form of a drug product or intermediate.

G

GAMP

Good Automated Manufacturing Practice. A guide which explains the recommended documentation, terminology and work methods which should be used by suppliers of automated equipment to the pharmaceutical industry to enable users to more easily validate these systems. GAMP was developed by the Pharmaceutical Industry Computer Systems validation Forum.

GCP

Good Clinical Practices.

GLP

Good Laboratory Practices.

GMP

Good Manufacturing Practice. A comprehensive of standards covering the physical production environment and its operation and maintenance, materials and their recording and control, recallability, quality standards and their application, personnel qualifications, validation and other topics.

cGMP

Current Good Manufacturing Practice. The version of GMP legally mandated in the USA by the FDA; elsewhere GMP is generally operated more by consent and agreement.

Generic pharmaceuticals ("Generics")

Non-branded drug products e.g. benzodiazepine rather than Valium. These are generallyimitations of formulations previously covered by patents. While the same cGMP and other regulations apply to generics as to original formulations, the producing companies do not have the same R&D costs and can therefore sell the products more cheaply.

Granules & powders

Loose products, packed in bags, sachets, tubs, etc.

H

Hard gelatine capsule

Two-part capsule, often in two colours. May be printed or un-printed. Filled with powder or granulated materials (such as controlled-release granulations). Supplied to the pharmaceutical manufacturer as empty closed capsules which are then taken apart, filled and reassembled.

Homeopathic medicines

Ultra-low dosage medicines, generally manufactured from natural ingredients.

I

Inhaler

Non-pressurised spray or pump. May be pre-filled with drug product or supplied separately.

Injectables

Products for injection, either before or after dilution, e.g. anaesthetics. Usually produced under sterile conditions. see also: vial, ampoule, liquid.

Ingredient (Inactive)

Any component other than an "active ingredient".

Ingredients (Natural)

Extracts from organic materials, either derived from crops or from fermented or genetically-manipulated organisms. Essentially variable in attributes.

In-process material

Any material fabricated, compounded, blended or derived by chemical reaction that is produced for, and used in the preparation of the drug product.

Intermediate

The product of a production stage other than the last, and which is an input material for a subsequent stage.

J

K

L

Leaflet

Information material often included in drug product pack. Controlled as for labels or other printed packaging material. see also: package insert.

LIMS

Laboratory Information Management Systems. These are used manage/control laboratory equipment and to monitor/maintain results of sample tests conducted in the laboratory.

Liquid

Any of many liquid dosage forms for oral or topical application e.g. syrups, suspensions, linctuses. Usually supplied in bottles.

Lot

A batch, or a specific identified portion of a batch, having uniform character and quality within specified limits; or, in the case of a drug product produced by continuous process, it is a specific identified amount produced in a unit of time or quantity in a manner that assures its having uniform character and quality within specified limits.

Lot number, control number, or batch number

Any distinctive combination of letters, numbers, or symbols, or any combination of them, from which the complete history of the manufacture, processing, packing, holding, and distribution of a batch or lot of drug product or other material can be determined.

M

Manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product

Includes packaging and labelling operations, testing, and quality control of drug products.

Manufacturing

Production of basic unpacked products.

MES

Manufacturing Execution System. A system which can be composed of a number of separate computer systems, which when integrated together provide the tools to manage and control the production process from planning, scheduling, manufacturing, tracking etc.

MRP

Material Requirements Planning.

MRP II

Manufacturing Resource Planning.

N

O

Ointments & creams

Products for topical application, usually presented in collapsible tubes, tubs or jars.

Manufacturing stage

comparable with liquids. May be produced under sterile conditions e.g. eye ointment.

Oral

For direct ingestion (administration via the mouth).

OTC products

"Over-the-Counter" products. Drug products which can be bought at pharmacies without prescription. The regulatory regime and manufacturing environment are identical with ethicals.

P

Packaging material

Any of the items such as bottles, tubes, cartons, labels used to contain a drug product. Any printed packaging materials and any which are in direct contact with the drug product will be subject to recall and traceability requirements (q.v.).

Packing

Production of finished drug products from bulk product and packaging materials. also but incorrectly Packaging.

Pill

A layman's term denoting a sugar-coated tablet or a dragée.

Pre-filled syringe

Syringe for injection of drug supplied filled with exact dose. Limited application e.g. for adrenaline or anti-histaminics.

Presentation

A version of a drug product e.g. Bactrim 5mg blister-packed x 10, Italian labelling.

Q

Quality control

Used here in the narrower sense of the functions and activities connected with sampling, analysis and approval (or rejection) of materials.

Quality control unit

Means any person or organisational element designated by the firm to be responsible for the duties relating to quality control.

R

Recallability

The ability to locate, anywhere in the supply chain, drug products or their components at any level including starting materials, and to withdraw those products or components from the market or from use. This requires traceability (q.v.).

Recycling

Many materials used in pharmaceutical manufacturing can be recycled. In view of their cost and environmental impact this can be important.

Representative sample

A sample that consists of a number of units that are drawn based on rational criteria such as random sampling and intended to assure that the sample accurately portrays the material being sampled.

S

Soft gelatine capsule

Integral capsule used for liquids. Filling is a specialist operation and generally sub-contracted.

SCADA

Supervisory control and data acquisition.

Solvent

Liquid used to dissolve another ingredient e.g. for coating. Often reclaimed and reprocessed.

SPC

Statistical process control providing trend analysis from real time monitoring of process instrumentation to predict failures / variations from standard.

Sterile production

Production activities carried out in controlled sterile environments having filtered laminar-flow air supplies.

Strength

Means the concentration of the drug substance (for example, weight/weight, weight/volume, or unit dose/volume basis), and or the potency, that is, the therapeutic activity of the drug product as indicated by appropriate laboratory tests or by adequately developed and controlled clinical data (expressed, for example, in terms of units by reference to a standard).

Substance

Alternative name for material. Generally used of active ingredients.

T

Tablet

Compressed, generally flattened and often circular oral dosage form produced in tablet press from granulated dry or moist mass e.g. conventional aspirin tablet. May be un-coated, film-coated or sugar-coated and, if coated, printed or un-printed.

Theoretical yield

Means the quantity that would be produced at any appropriate phase of manufacture, processing, or packing or a particular drug product, based upon the quantity of components to be used, in the absence of any loss or error in actual production.

Traceability

Facilities to determine the origin and destination of all quantitiesof every lot of lot-traced materials and products. Lot tracing proceeds generally "backwards" or "downwards" from a finished product (drug product) to one or more lower levels (earlier in the supply chain) in order to locate dubious lots, and then "forwards" or "upwards" to one or more higher levels to locate all lots containing any part of the dubious lots.see also: Lot Tracing, Lot Tracking.

U

V

Vaccines

Injectable or oral preparations conferring immunity from specific diseases. Vaccines are biological products.

Vial

Glass bottle-like container with stopper, usually of rubber, containing liquid or powder.

Vitamins

Commonly found as ingredients. Most are nature-identical, some are natural ingredients. Synthetic production is a characteristic fine chemical operation.

W

X

Y

Z

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